The three products was basically balanced for suggest decades, and distribution off intercourse and neuter position of your own animals (we


Around three categories of Edging collies (GWL pet, Hungarian animals, Austrian animals), all of the more than ten months old, was in fact among them study. age., a haphazard shot could have been picked regarding HU and you may Bien au animals how much does a filipino bride cost to suit the newest descriptives of the Grams pets).

Every dogs included in the GWL pets class know the fresh new label away from 10 > toys (Binomial take to, p dos ). Whenever a difference was found in a given grounds, i work on more analyses with the elements of one to foundation, and you will Games–Howell post-hoc assessment (Industry 2013) were work on where tall distinctions was in fact located. I used Cohen’s d so you can guess the effect size of these pairwise comparisons. To manage towards the untrue knowledge speed (FDR), i put Benjamini–Hochberg procedure (Benjamini and you can Hochberg 1995) to modify this new p viewpoints to own multiple evaluations. SPSS (variation twenty eight, IBM Enterprise) was used for everybody analytical analyses except for Cohen’s d and that is actually calculated manually.


Descriptives of the means and standard deviations of the three dog groups can be found in Table 1. Fearfulness, Aggression towards People, and Aggression towards Animals did not differ significantly between the three samples of Border collies (p > 0.184 for all). However, we found a significant difference between the samples in Activity/Excitability (Fdos. = 5.137, p = 0.020, ? 2 = 0.059) and Responsiveness to training factors (Fdos. = 7.988, p = 0.003, ? 2 = 0.094). In the former (Activity/Excitability) factor, Hungarian Border collies received lower scores than GWL dogs (p = 0.020, d = 0.792) and tended to receive lower scores than Austrian Border collies (p = 0.066, d = 0.459). Subsequent analyses of the facets of this factor showed significant differences in Excitability and Playfulness between the samples. Regarding the Excitability facet (F2. = , p 2 = 0.104), Hungarian Border collies were found to be less excitable than both the GWL dogs (p 2 = 0.067), GWL dogs were more playful than both Hungarian (d = 1.006) and Austrian Border collies (d = 0.892, p 0.193 for both).

In the case of the Responsiveness to training factor, Austrian Border collies received lower scores than GWL dogs (p = 0.014, d = 0.829) and, on a trend level, also lower than Hungarian Border collies (p = 0.056, d = 0.419). Regarding the two facets of this factor, the results did not show a significant difference between the samples in Trainability (p = 0.193), only in Controllability (Fdos. = , p 2 = 0.129). In this facet, we found that Austrian Border collies received lower scores than both GWL dogs (p = 0.003, d = 0.965) and Hungarian Border collies (p = 0.006, d = 0.676) (Fig. 1c).


Like individual education (Elizabeth.g., Stankov 2018; Wirthwein et al. 2019), our very own exploratory study did not look for variations in most character traits within gifted plus the typical dogs. The only characteristic that presented a positive change ranging from GWL Border collies and you will the Austrian and you can Hungarian types of regular Edging collies is actually Playfulness. Thus, because the hypothesized, giftedness in resolving a specific disease (taking stuff predicated on spoken names) tends to be associated with higher levels of playfulness.

The brand new quick understanding off model labels are proven to occur in playful societal contexts towards holder (Fugazza mais aussi al. 2021a, b), which may further go for reading during the really playful anyone giving even more period having learning. Significantly more playful animals were along with discovered to establish visual communication having humans less (Bognar 2021), which could after that facilitate a verbal context, including the one out of and this target brands is actually properly discovered by the GWL pets.